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Dr. Owen Holland was a Principal Research Scientist at the Cyberlife Institute from March 1999, working on machine consciousness. In the spring of 1999 he published Stigmergy, Self-Organization, and Sorting in Collective Robotics. When the Institute closed in late 1999 (see history) he returned to Caltech, subesquently moving on to the position of Chief Scientist at Starlab and then transferring to the University of Essex in October 2001.
Stigmergy, Self-Organization, and Sorting in Collective Robotics (PDF)